Tuesday, February 16, 2010

Creation ofDigital Elevation Model (DEM)

For the accurate removal of the image distortions, a digital elevation model (DEM) is used to make image orthorectification. The requisite DEM can be produced by semi-automatic DEM extraction software from stereo satellite scenes obtained by the QuickBird, IKONOS, SPOT-5, or ASTER satellite sensors, and stereo aerial photography.

In situations where higher mapping accuracy standards are required, the DEM is extracted from the already existing topographic maps with reference to a standard scale or collected using stereo satellite image data.

To obtain this accuracy standard, adequate GPS-derived ground control points (GCPs) are necessary. Other remote sensing techniques can also be used such as radar interferometry or LIDAR.

When a particular vector data needs to be extracted from satellite or aerial image data by raster-to-vector translation, the process of ortho rectification of the remotely sensed image data can rectify all digital images of geological, environmental, topographic or any other source map which will be used in the GIS mapping environment.

Creating anOrthophoto / Orthorectification

In the areas of GIS data acquisition, visualization and general mapping, digital satellite imagery and aerial photographs have a significant place.Photographs obviously provide a solid visual effect. Imperceptible spatial concepts are more clearly understood by viewing the photographs. These are not photographs taken by ordinary cameras. These are very professional high-end cameras with higher zoom and clarity.
Another important role of these photos is to provide a foundation for collecting the spatial information needed. Data in the form of the satellite images or aerial photographs must be taken without any distortions, if you need to gather information useful for a mapping or GIS system in the case of roads, marine forms or vegetation.
This process of correcting the distortions of a satellite image of aerial photograph is called Orthophoto rectification.This process allows you to make direct and precise measurements of areas, distances, angles, positions etc.